(Russell C, McKeganey N, Hamilton-Barclay T. An online survey of 5,000 vapers' perceptions and experiences of using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation. Glasgow, Scotland UK: Centre for Drug Misuse Research. Presented at the Tobacco Science Research Conference, September 22, 2015.)
In the study, a worldwide internet survey was conducted and was available in seven languages. It was advertised on social media and through e-cigarette fora. The recruitment materials invited the participation of all adults who had ever used an electronic cigarette, even a puff. Importantly, it was not restricted to experienced vapers who had success quitting smoking. There were 7,326 respondents.
The most important study findings were as follows:
- Of the dual users, 64% reported having reduced their cigarette consumption;
- Of the dual users, 56% had cut their cigarette consumption by 50% or more;
- Of the dual users, 81% reported having quit smoking for a period of at least one week;
- Of the dual users, 70% reported the intention to quit smoking within six months;
- Of the dual users, 88% reported that they planned to cut their cigarette consumption by at least half in the next six months;
- Of the dual users, 63% predicted that they would quit smoking completely within six months, and another 27% predicted that they would cut their cigarette consumption within six months.
Although this sample is of course not representative of the population, it does reveal important information about the attitudes and behavior of a large sample of dual users. The recruitment methods likely attracted a sample that had a disproportionately positive experience with electronic cigarettes, so these results should not be generalized to the overall population. However, within this subset of the population, it is clear that there are a substantial number of dual users for whom electronic cigarettes are having substantial positive consequences, even though they have not quit smoking completely.
This is critical information because most tobacco control advocates and groups have argued that quitting smoking is the only potential benefit of electronic cigarettes and that dual use is a negative consequence. These study results call those assumptions into question.
First, it is clear that a large percentage of the dual users had significantly cut down on the amount they smoked. This, in itself, confers substantial health benefits, especially in terms of respiratory symptoms and progression of respiratory disease. It also reduces smoking addiction and makes it easier for these smokers to quit in the future.
Second, it is clear that electronic cigarettes are being used as a part of an overall plan to quit smoking and that dual users largely were committed to eventually quit smoking completely. Even more importantly, nearly two-thirds of the dual users had positive self-efficacy for quitting, predicting that they would be smoke-free in six months time.
These results also call into question the claims of many anti-tobacco advocates that use of electronic cigarettes is inhibiting smoking cessation by removing the intention or desire to quit. It appears that among at least a subset of dual users, the e-cigarettes are being used as part of a smoking cessation plan and the intention to quit remains. In fact, the level of self-efficacy of these dual users is much higher than we observe in general smokers in the population.
This study certainly points the need for a similar survey to be conducted among a representative sample of smokers who try electronic cigarettes but fail to quit (i.e., a large, representative sample of dual users). However, the preliminary data from this study suggest that the use of e-cigarettes by adult smokers should be viewed as an integral part of an overall plan to quit smoking and improve one's health. And vaping appears to be helping smokers achieve both.